Printed circuit board

PCB (printed circuit board) sheet composition and industry chain analysis

(Printedcircuitboard, referred to as PCB) is a substrate for assembling electronic parts, is a printed board that forms interdot connections and printed components on a common substrate according to a predetermined design. The main function of the product is to make a variety of electronic components to form a predetermined circuit connection, the role of relay transmission, is the key electronic interconnections of electronic products. The manufacturing quality of printed circuit board not only directly affects the electronic
(Printedcircuitboard, referred to as PCB) is the assembly of electronic parts with the substrate, is a universal substrate in accordance with the predetermined design to form a connection between the points and printed components of the printed board. The main function of the product is to make a variety of electronic components to form a predetermined circuit connection, the role of relay transmission, is the key electronic interconnections of electronic products. Printed circuit board manufacturing quality, not only directly affect the reliability of electronic products, but also affect the overall competitiveness of the system products, so the printed circuit board is known as the “mother of electronic system products. The development level of printed circuit board industry can reflect to a certain extent the development speed and technical level of a country or region’s electronics industry.

Glass fiber yarn: Glass fiber yarn is made of silica sand and other raw materials calcined into liquid form in the kiln, and then pulled into very fine glass fibers through a very fine alloy nozzle, and then hundreds of glass fibers are twisted into glass fiber yarn. Kiln construction investment is huge, capital-intensive industry, 30,000 tons of kilns need 400 million RMB, new kilns need 18 months, the boom cycle is difficult to grasp, and once the ignition must be 24-hour non-stop production, and after about five years, must stop production for six months maintenance, into the exit cost is huge.

Glass fiber cloth: glass fiber cloth is one of the raw materials of copper-clad panels, woven from glass fiber yarn, accounting for about 40% of the cost of copper-clad panels (thick panels) and 25% (thin panels). Glass fabric manufacturing is similar to weaving companies, which can control capacity and quality by controlling rotational speed, and the specifications are relatively single and stable, with little change in specifications since World War II. Unlike CCL, the price of fiberglass fabric is most affected by supply and demand, and has fluctuated between US$0.50~1.00/m in recent years. Currently, Taiwan and Mainland China account for about 70% of the global production capacity. The relationship between upstream and downstream is the key to the operation. The price of a loom is 100~150,000, generally more than 100 units can be produced normally, but the subsequent heat treatment and chemical treatment equipment has high capital requirements up to 10 million, and the capacity of weaving is easy to expand and more flexible.

Copper foil: copper foil is the largest proportion of the cost of copper clad board raw materials, accounting for about 30% of the cost of copper clad board (thick board) and 50% (thin board) or more, so the price of copper foil is the main driver of the price increase of copper clad board. Copper foil is widely used, not only in the laminate industry, when the laminate industry is in the doldrums, copper foil manufacturers can switch to other uses of copper foil. The price of copper foil closely reflects the price of copper, and as the price of copper rises, copper foil manufacturers shift the cost pressure downstream. The high technical barriers in the copper foil industry have led to a lack of domestic supply, and high-grade copper foil still needs to be imported in large quantities, and the cost of investing in a factory is also large.

Copper laminate (CCL for short): is an electronic-grade glass fiber cloth as a substrate, dipped in epoxy resin, after drying treatment, made of semi-cured state of the bonding sheet, and then in a single-sided, double-sided or multi-layer board surface laying on the board thin copper foil, made by a special hot pressing process conditions, is the direct raw material for PCB. Laminate industry capital requirements, the small-scale factory is about 50 million yuan, a high degree of concentration, the country has about 100. Laminate industry is a cost-driven cyclical industry, in the upstream and downstream industry chain structure, CCL to PCB bargaining power is strong, as long as the downstream demand is still available, it can pass the pressure of rising costs to the downstream PCB manufacturers, but only the size of the very large CCL can have a strong voice in the procurement of raw materials such as glass fiber cloth, copper foil. Due to the single use of copper clad products can only be sold to the printed circuit board factory, when the PCB downturn, can only press the price to ensure the use of capacity.

PCB: relative to the upstream and downstream industries, printed circuit board industry characteristics determine its industrial concentration is not high; in a highly competitive market environment, only those with good market positioning and high operational efficiency of the enterprise has long-term competitiveness, an ordinary PCB production line requires more than 20 million yuan, multilayer board requires investment of 50 million, HDI requires investment of more than 200 million yuan. Due to the huge industry, the division of labor is very fine, there are single-station process outsourcing specializing in drilling, etc., the oversupply of low-grade products. HDI and other high-end printed circuit board industry belongs to the capital, labor-intensive industry, the requirements for management and technology is also relatively high, often become a bottleneck in capacity expansion.


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